While convenience stores, gas stations and vehicle repair facilities provide many benefits, they can have a severe quality of life impact when allowed too close to homes and other inappropriate locations. In fact, new stores and stations can even harm existing establishments, particularly when predatory pricing is employed to eliminate competition.
In this webpage we offer advice on how homeowners, neighborhood associations, and even store or station owners can get the benefits of these establishments without the negative impacts. If you're looking for more then advice consider retaining CEDS to manage your campaign to design the impacts out of an otherwise sound proposal or to defeat a poorly-planned retail project.
We can review a proposed convenience store, gas station or repair facility for the impacts listed below and more. An example of a CEDS analysis can be viewed by clicking: Waverly Woods win. This analysis prompted decision-makers to deny special exception-conditional use permits for a proposed convenience store-gas station. To see the many places around the nation where we've helped others, see the CEDS Case Map.
Between our unique Politically Oriented Advocacy, Equitable Solutions and Smart Legal Strategy approaches we can triple the likelihood of success at a fraction of the cost. Contact us at Help@ceds.org or 410-654-3021 for a no-cost initial discussion of strategy options.
The following will help you understand the context of these three uses. This context is critical to formulating a strategy to protect a neighborhood or the environment from the impacts of a convenience store, gas or service station proposed for the wrong site or suffering from a flawed design.
Convenience Stores: When the first convenience store opened in 1927, they were mostly small, Mom and Pop establishments where one could buy snacks, basic kitchen-health supplies, beverages, prepared foods, etc. Beginning in the 1980s, convenience stores were combined with gas stations. Today, a growing number offer vehicle maintenance and repair as well.
Today, there are more than 140,000 convenience stores in the USA. Convenience is indeed the key to the success of these stores. It is this attribute which prompts 80% of Americans to prefer shopping at a convenience store vs. supermarkets. In fact, 100 million Americans shop at convenience stores every day.
Gas Stations: The number of gas stations in the U.S. has been declining. In 1994, there were 202,800 gas stations across the nation, but by 2012 the number was down to 156,065. The decline can be attributed to cars getting more miles per gallon, thus needing less gas, as well as new stations adding many more pumps. The decline is also due to supermarkets, big-box stores and others using cheap gas outside to draw customers inside. CEDS developed a spreadsheet approach for determining if a need exists for additional gas stations in an area. For further detail see: Assessing Gas Station Need below.
Vehicle Repair Facilities: Known as service stations or garages, vehicle repair facilities are essential services. But these facilities can cause impacts greater than those associated with just a convenience store or a gas station. Primary impacts include:
Noise from body repair, tire changes and large truck or bus diesel engines;
Air pollution due to diesel engines idling for extended periods, paint vapors or dust emitted from body refinishing; and
The release of a variety of polluting materials that settle on parking lots and other impervious surfaces which then wash into nearby ground or surface waters with each rain.
Hypermarts, Supermarkets & Big-Box Stores: Known as Hypermarts, large combination convenience stores with sit-down space and numerous fueling positions are becoming increasingly common. Hypermarts, supermarkets and big-box stores that are part of regional or national chains can buy and sell gas for less than traditional, locally-owned gas stations. This usually causes one or more of these older businesses to go out of business when one of these big newcomers opens.
A number of studies have shown that local economies are better off with locally owned businesses compared to those which are part of national chain. These studies show that on average 48% of each purchase at a locally-owned business circulates through the local economy compared to less than 14% of purchases from national chain stores.
Abandoned gas station sites are difficult to convert to other uses. In the meantime, they deteriorate causing the area to appear rundown, lowering property value. This impact is addressed below under Blighting.
Impacts: Following are the impacts which may be associated with a convenience store, a gas station or a vehicle repair facility. Note that most can be resolved, provided both the site and design is right.
"Convenience store employees suffer from high rates of workplace homicide, second only to taxicab drivers."
A study of the relationship between violence of other factors found an increasing trend as the number of alcohol outlets in an area rose. Following is a principal finding from this study:
"A larger number of alcohol outlets and a higher rate of violence might be expected in poorer neighborhoods or in neighborhoods with a larger population young people. But as the research described above shows, even when levels of poverty and the age and the ethnic background of residents are taken into account, a high density of outlets is strongly related to violence regardless of a neighborhood’s economic, ethnic or age status."
Another study only noted an increase in crime in relation to number of alcohol outlets in low-income communities.
A National Association of Convenience Stores report noted that the following steps were the most effective in reducing convenience store crime:
cash control (by frequently putting excess cash in an in-store safe);
locating a store where there are few escape routes (e.g. nearby highways);
visibility (locating stores in areas with lots of passersby); and
A number of compounds injurious to human health are released while fueling a vehicles. Health effects range from nausea to cancer. The cancer risk posed by gas station emissions stems from benzene and other compounds released to the atmosphere while pumping gas. Following is a sampling of relevant research:
A 2003-2004 study conducted in France documented a significant relationship between childhood leukemia and living near a gas station.
A 2010 study conducted in Spain documented elevated air pollution within 100 meters (328 feet) of a gas station.
In 2012, Brazilian researchers found that air quality was significantly degraded up to 150 meters (492 feet) from gas stations.
Benzene is arguably the gasoline constituent most harmful to human health. Adverse health effects of benzene include cancer, anemia, increased susceptibility to infections, and low birth weight. According to the World Health Organization Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality there is no safe level for benzene. The following studies document the extent of benzene releases from gas stations:
A study published by the Canadian petroleum industry found average benzene concentrations of 146 and 461 parts per billion (ppb) at the gas station property boundary in summer and winter, respectively.
A South Korean study examined outdoor and indoor benzene concentrations at numerous residences within 100 feet and between 196 to 328 feet of gas stations and found median outdoor benzene concentrations of 3.1 and 1.9 ppb, respectively. Median indoor concentrations at these locations were higher, reaching 4.1 and 5.2 ppb, respectively.
Another study found median ambient benzene levels of 1.9 ppb in houses both <165 and >328 feet from a service station.
Yet, another study found that benzene and other gasoline vapor releases from service stations can be discerned from traffic emissions as far as 246 feet from service stations and that the contribution of service stations to ambient benzene is less important in areas of high traffic density. This is because vehicle exhaust is usually the most abundant volatile organic compound (VOC) in urban areas, often followed by gasoline vapor emissions from fuel handling and vehicle operation.
The California Air Resources Board publication Air Quality and Land Use Handbook: A Community Health Perspective, recommends a minimum 300-foot separation distance between gas stations and "sensitive land uses such as residences, schools, daycare centers, playgrounds, or medical facilities." The State of California is widely recognized as having some of the most effective air pollution control requirements in the nation. Yet even with these controls a minimum separation is still required to protect public health.
Furthermore, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency echoed the concerns about the health risk associated with fueling emissions in their School Siting Guidelines. The USEPA recommended screening school sites for potential health risk when located within 1,000 feet of a high-volume gas station.
The graph above is from the California Air Resources Board Handbook. The graph shows how cancer risk varies with distance from the perimeter of a gas station. Of course the risk also varies with the volume of fuel dispensed at a location. But many of the large combination (hypermart) convenience store-gas stations being built today will sell 3 million gallons a year or more. While the cancer risk may be lower than for the 3,600,000 gallon per year throughput shown in the graph, it is by no means zero. Table 1-1, in the California Air Resources Board Handbook recommended a minimum separation distance of 300 feet between gas stations and "sensitive land uses such as residences, schools, daycare centers, playgrounds, or medical facilities."
Idling engines, particularly those in large diesel trucks, emit a large quantity of particulates into the local atmosphere. These particulates can pose a significant health risk for those living near convenience store/truck stops.
Following are a couple of other examples of health effects associated with convenience stores.
Lighting is essential to convenience store safety and profitability. We're less likely to patronize a poorly lit store while criminals find this inviting. But too much lighting and area residents may suffer glare in their bedrooms or lose their view of the nighttime sky.
There's a phenomenon known as ratcheting where one business installs bright lights. The new lights cause nearby establishments to look darker than before, so they install brighter lights and on the upward spiral goes. Ratcheting can greatly increase light trespass impacts to area residents.
Fortunately new LED lights and other approaches can make a convenience store safe and attractive. The lighting should be fully shielded and follow the latest recommendations of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) along with those of the International Dark-Sky Association.
All of us who have taken our cars in for service are familiar with the many loud noises generated by repair facilities. Tire air guns produce a noise level of 104 dBA and the air chisels used in body shops emits 112 dBA. An accelerating diesel truck emits 114 dBA and even 100 dBA while idling. Make it a late-night or all-night establishment and you have a use which definitely does not belong near homes.
So how close is too close? CEDS recommends a minimum separation of 300 feet between homes and late-night/all-night stores. However, a site-specific noise analysis may show a lesser setback will adequately protect area homes. Such an analysis should distinguish between rural and urban settings. A nighttime noise level of 55 dBA may be OK in a city or suburb while 45 dBA is more appropriate for rural areas.
Every community has boarded up stores and even entire blocks or shopping centers that have been abandoned. These lost commercial opportunities are frequently poorly maintained, making them unattractive and unpleasant neighbors. This is known as blight.
One of the causes of blight is excessive or unfair competition. There is an upper limit to the number of retail establishments any area can handle. In urban areas with high traffic volumes there can be a thriving gas station-convenience store on nearly every corner. Whereas rural settings may only support a single store at only one out of every ten or so major intersections.
Some localities have adopted limits on how many convenience stores or gas stations can exist within a given area. Others require a market analysis to demonstrate that an area can accommodate another store. But applying these planning tools can be tricky in situations where an aging c-store would be put out of business by a new establishment with four times the floor space. One option though is to provide strong incentives for the new store owners to buy out the old and redevelop the site.
Many establishments use low gas prices to attract customers into the store. Profit margins are generally much higher on the goods sold in the store when compared to gas sales. National chains can purchase and sell gas at much lower prices when compared to smaller (Mom and Pop) stores.
It is not uncommon for the national chains to sell gas so low that it draws many customers away from existing stores. This is known as competition or predatory pricing depending upon whether you are the national chain or the Mom or Pop. However, once the competition goes out of business gas prices frequently rise. Some jurisdictions have laws against predatory pricing, but enforcement can be challenging.
A convenience store or gas station can lower the value of nearby homes. One of the most plausible effects is on mortgages. Federal Housing Administration (FHA) insurance is not available for properties located within 300 feet of tanks capable of storing 1,000 gallons or more of gasoline or other flammable-explosive materials. Most gas station storage tanks have a capacity far in excess of 1,000 gallons.
A Georgia study noted that commercial development in general can depress residential property value when first completed then the effect diminishes with time. However, this study examined homes located 0.5- to 1.0-miles distant. Several studies documented that commercial uses can depress nearby property value but not at a distance. In King County, Washington commercial uses were found to depress residential properties within 300 feet but not beyond 1,000 feet or so.
In upscale areas, some convenience stores are almost attractive. But few homeowners would chose a convenience store as a prominent item in their viewshed. The problem is compounded if blighting forces owners to cut back on store upkeep or to close.
Well vegetated perimeters and other visual buffering methods can do much to reduce the impact. The buffer must be dense enough to achieve nearly 100% opacity. Dumpsters should be well screened with fencing or other methods. Trash receptacles must be regularly emptied. Of course local Code Enforcement must be up to the job of keeping store owners in compliance.
Because of the high traffic volume and refueling, convenience stores-gas stations pose an unusually severe threat to ground and surface waters. Adding vehicle servicing facilities increases the threat. One study found that contaminant levels in convenience store-gas station runoff were 5- to 30-times higher when compared to residential runoff. In another study researchers detected several compounds in vehicle repair facility runoff which were probable cancer-causing agents. These findings have prompted a number of states and local governments to list vehicle repair facilities as stormwater hotspots. USEPA guidance advises caution with regard to allowing hotspot runoff to infiltrate the soil, particularly in areas where drinking water is obtained through wells. The use of highly-effective stormwater Best Management Practices to treat repair facility runoff before it is infiltrated into the soil.
Fuel storage tanks and pipelines pose another source of contamination, though the design of both has improved dramatically over the past couple of decades. Spillage at the pump is a more likely source of fuel release into nearby waterways. In fact, Johns Hopkins University researchers found that an average of 40 gallons of gasoline is spilled at a typical gas station per year at the pumps. The JHU researchers also found that a significant portion of the spilled gasoline can migrate through the concrete pads at many fueling stations.
So how far should a gas station be from a well or surface waters to reduce the likelihood of contamination to a reasonable level? Well, the key question is actually how far can one anticipate that a plume of spilled gasoline will travel underground. One review of scientific studies of plume travel indicated that the 90th percentile distance is 400 feet. Add another 100 feet for installing grout curtains or other containment measures and a gas station should be no closer than 500 feet to a well, wetland, spring, stream, river, pond, lake, reservoir or tidal waters.
Best Management Practices (BMPs) are available that reduce the probability of contamination. One study indicated bioretention facilities could remove 80% - 95% of hydrocarbons in synthetic stormwater runoff. But even the most effective BMPs may not be enough if a store or station adjoins highly sensitive waters. For further suggestions see our aquatic resource impact assessment webpage.
A historic resource may include a building or place where a significant event took place or an eminent figure once resided. The resource could also be an area, such as a Native American settlement. The event or building could date from just over 50 years ago to thousands of years past.
The goal of historic preservation professionals is to safeguard the setting of the resource from factors which might detract from one's ability to understand what makes it significant. Of course there are few historic resources which would be compatible with a convenience store. But then there are exceptions, such as the "convenience stores" called "gift shops" which are present in many visitor centers.
Generally, a convenience store should not be located within view of a historic resource. In some situations this may include not only the resource proper but the access road too. Frequently, those wishing to locate a potentially incompatible facility near a historic resource will be required to prepare a sightline. As the name implies, the sightline is drawn from the most visible part of a proposed store to various points at the historic resource. The analysis shows whether hills, buildings or other features would block the store from view.
Originally, most commercial uses were located in downtown areas. With the automobile new convenience stores and other commercial uses were increasingly located in strips along major highways. This ugly form of growth is only accessible by car.
Modern planning philosophy calls for locating convenience stores in neighborhood scale commercial areas accessible by walking, bicycling or car. Of course there will always be a need to locate convenience stores and gas stations along major highways. However, managing growth to bring convenience stores and other retail outlets back to downtown areas could do much to revitalize blighted areas and enhance our quality of life.
The CEDS Traffic webpage provides detailed guidance on evaluating impacts to street and highway safety. In this section we offer guidance on some of the issues we've encountered while evaluating numerous convenience stores and gas station proposals. Due to space constraints we've only listed the more common issues.
As a rough rule of thumb, each proposed pump at a gas station generates about 100 to 130 trips per day. By "pump" we mean fueling position. The convenience store will generate 800 to 1,200 trips per day per 1,000 square feet. So a 2,000 square foot store with ten pumps would generate around 3,150 trips per day. We provide these numbers so you can compare them with those for a proposed store to see if they are in the right range. However, the standard reference is ITE's Trip Generation manual.
With regard to safety, customers should not have to walk across vehicle travel lanes. Instead ample parking should be provided along the front and sides of the store. Yes, many customers will leave their car at the pump and walk to the store. But, again, this should be kept to a minimum by creating lots of spaces next to the store.
Deliver trucks, particularly long tractor-trailers, must be able to maneuver without encroaching upon parking spaces, fueling positions or other features. To the left is an exhibit from one of our cases involving an unusually small gas station site. With this exhibit our traffic engineer showed that large delivery trucks would strike cars at several fueling positions when attempting to navigate around the site. This issue was one of several that prompted the Board of Appeals to deny a special exception for this project.
Over the years CEDS has researched the effects of many proposed convenience stores, gas stations and vehicle repair facilities. With regard to gas stations, the market area usually extends 0.5- to 1.5-miles. It takes about 3,000 to 6,000 people living or working within the market area to support a single gas station.
CEDS has developed a spreadsheet for determining if a market area will support a proposed gas station. Normally we would post the spreadsheet on a webpage like this along with instructions showing how you can run your own analysis. Unfortunately we've found that each area is unique and requires a fair bit of experience to develop an accurate analysis. But you can get a rough idea of need by seeing if 3,000 to 6,000 people live or work within a half to a mile and a half from the site. If you wish CEDS can run the analysis for you, but we would need to charge a modest fee.
Many local zoning ordinances allow planning commissions and other decision-makers to consider need when asked to act on a request to build another gas station. Need should also be factored into a decision about a zoning change. CEDS and our clients have convinced many decision-makers to deny approval for a poorly sited or badly designed project.
For guidance on how to research legal need requirements and decision-making precedents see Chapters 35 and 40 in our free 300-page book How To Win Land Development Issues. If you have any questions contact CEDS at 410-654-3021 or Help@ceds.org.
Given the impacts and corrective measures described above, an optimum convenience store-gas station location would have the following characteristics:
At least 300 feet from the nearest home; or
Buffered so the store cannot be seen or heard from the nearest home;
For ultra-high volume gas stations, a minimum if 300 feet away;
Not within view of historic resources;
Away from highly sensitive ground or surface water resources;
Accessible by foot and bike as well as cars;
Located in a downtown or neighborhood commercial area;
Well lit, but not to the point of causing light trespass into nearby homes;
In an area with many passersby and few escape routes for criminals; and
In an area where the market can accommodate a new store without putting existing ones out of business.